شهرداری به عنوان یک نهادِ بخش عمومی، وظیفه تولید و ارائه خدمات عمومی مورد نیاز شهر را بر عهده دارد. این نهاد برای جبران مخارج تولید کالاهای عمومی شهری، متکی به منابعی (درآمد) است که عمدتاٌ به صورت عوارض از شهروندان اخذ میکند، اما این شیوه تأمین مالی شهرداریهای ایران را با مشکلات فراوانی مواجه کرده است. بخش سوم اقتصاد میتواند به عنوان یک منبع پایدار مالی شیوه تأمین مالی شهرداریها را بهبود بخشد که نمود بارز بخش سوم اقتصاد در کشورهای اسلامی و کشور ما، وقف میباشد. هدف از این پژوهش ارائه راهبرد مناسب جهت ارتقاء جایگاه بخش سوم اقتصاد (وقف) در تأمین نیازهای بخش عمومی شهری میباشد که با فهرست نمودن نقاط قوت، ضعف، فرصتها و تهدیدهای نهاد وقف شهری و ارزیابی آنها راهبردهای مناسب با استفاده از تحلیل SWOT استخراج گردیده و جهت انتخاب بهترین راهکار گزینه"اعتمادسازی" با وزن نسبی 347/0 با مدل تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) معرفی شده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Strategic Planning Process for Satisfaction of Urban Public Needs By Promoting the Third Sector (Waqf and Charity) Using the SWOT Analysis
Municipality as a public sector has the duty of serving people and providing goods and necessary public services for the city (citizens) such as parks, urban cleaning, streets and highways, and so on. The growth of cities along with the increase in living standards will increase the citizens' needs. As a result, the municipality needs financial resources to produce more of these goods and services. The municipalities have been collecting taxes in various ways to finance their duties; however, collecting taxes has caused the economy of the city to face a lot of problems, including the rise in the price of goods and services. With the reduction of state aid since 1986, there has not been a good way to replace the new income sources of municipalities, which has reduced the ability of municipalities to provide services and perform urban projects. In order to reduce the adverse effects of taking the tolls, the economic studies were introduced determination of new sources of financing in the economic third sector for the urban public needs.
The study seeks to achieve a relatively comprehensive understanding of the activities of the subsystems of the third sector of the economy and the entrance of the third part of the economy and its symbol waqf to the services of the city and the municipality. In this regard, in order to achieve the objectives of the subject, we need an institutional definition called "urban waqf", and considering that the strategic planning process includes general principles and directions, evaluation of internal and external factors, attention of the main practitioners, identification and determination of Key issues, decision making, and continuous monitoring of the results. Therefore, most organization use a direct approach to determine strategic issues.
This approach involves moving straight from the weaknesses, strengths, situations and threats (SWOT) towards identifying the strategic issues. In other words, SWOT analysis is one of the strategic tools for matching the strengths and weaknesses of the internal factors with the opportunities and threats associated with the environmental factors. The SWOT analysis provides a systematic analysis to identify these factors and formulate a strategy which creates the best match for them. From the perspective of this model, a strengths of strategy and opportunities is maximized, and the weaknesses and threats are minimized. To this end, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are linked in the general framework of SO, WO, ST, and WT, and the strategy option is chosen from among them. By identifying the effective internal and environmental factors on waqf and their analysis by SWOT analysis, a comprehensive strategy can be found which will be used in strengthening the strengths and opportunities, and also will be used widely to meet the needs of the Urban public sector. considering the precision of categorization of factors and the choice of strategies according to the criteria and indicators in the AHP model (hierarchical analysis), the classification and selection of strategies has been taken to implement them in order to implement strategies and also to improve the position of the third part of the economy And its important element, Waqf, for the needs of the urban public sector in our country.
The research method is a descriptive-survey method. In this way, the dimensions of the research problem can be investigated. The main tool for collecting information in this method is a questionnaire, which is one kind of survey method and one of the subcategories of the descriptive method. To collect the information about thematic literature and a;so strengths and weaknesses as well as threats and environmental opportunities, library method and Internet resources are used. in addition to the library method, the field method, questionnaires, interviews, establishment of technical committees And creating mental storm e used.
.Results & Discussion
This research, which was conducted for the first time in the field of the active institutions of the third sector in the urban area, provides a comprehensive approach for planning in these institutions in terms of the strategic aspects and the existing capabilities, capacities, and internal and external constraints. Due to the use of a hybrid approach, the relevant authorities in the municipality and the endowment organization have achieved a wide range of important scientific and organizational issues. The presence of a diverse range of executive administrators, experts and managers has made it possible to prioritize extractive strategies in this research based on the concerns of those who are interested in it.
As shown in the figure, the priority of options to improve the third sector in providing urban needs is listed in the following:
ease of process
According to the results of the prioritization, the trust and cultural reform have the most impact and the protection have the least effect on leading donations to the urban needs.
The two methods of raising trust and culture reform include the strategies that have the greatest effect on improving the status of the third sector in meeting the urban needs of Isfahan.
The main purpose of this research was to identify and prioritize appropriate strategies for improving the position of the third sector of the economy in meeting the needs of the urban public sector. To do this, internal and external factors were evaluated. In the matrix of the strategies and priorities of the executive, the internal and external environment assessment, the internal points of the system (2.31) and the outside environment (27 / 2), which is lower than the average (2.5) due to the general situation in both internal and external environments; therefore the conservative strategies were suggested. Furthermore, the Hierarchical analysis method was used to select the best strategy. As a result, the trust building option with a relative weight of 347/0 was introduced as the best method to improve the position of the third sector in financing urban services.
Based on the research results, one of the reasons for the lack of altruistic participation in providing urban needs is the government's impression of the municipality duties as well as the nonconfidence about the use of public assistance in the predefined path. Therefore, in line with the trust building plan the municipality's nongovernmental status needs to be highlighted and the areas of people's participation in providing their urban needs are to be introduced. It is also crucial to provide the necessary preparation for the feedback in order to raise trust between the citizens and the municipality.