بافت فرسوده یکی از موضوعات مهم در سیاستگذاری عمومی شهری است که علاقهمندان زیادی را در طول دو دهۀ گذشته در زمینههای نظری و عملی به خود جلب کرده است. توسعه پایدار شهری نیز از مهمترین چالشهای فراروی بشریت در قرن بیست و یکم است که در ارتباط با بافت فرسوده و تبعات آن مورد توجه اندیشمندان حوزههای مختلف مطالعاتی خاصّه اقتصاد شهری بوده است. این مقاله با هدف ارائة مدل بومی توسعه پایدار شهری برای منطقه ثامن مشهد به بررسی روابط بین شاخصهای شناسایی بافت فرسوده و شاخصهای توسعه پایدار شهری با استفاده از مدلیابی معادلات ساختاری پرداخته است؛ چراکه مشهد بهعنوان دومین کلانشهر مذهبی دنیا، از نظر فرسودگی و پایداری، و نیز دسترسی به خدمات و منابع با مشکلات عدیدهای روبهرو است و با حضور خیل عظیم جمعیت زائران، اقتصاد شهری را نیز با مسائل اجتماعی و مدیریتی مواجه ساخته است؛ بنابراین این مطالعه با استفاده از روش پیمایشی و ابزار پرسشنامه به گردآوری دادههای تحقیق از یک نمونه 201 نفره ساکنین بافت فرسوده اطراف حرم که از بافت خارج شده و ملک خود را واگذار کردهاند، اقدام نموده و از نرمافزارهای آماری SPSS 24 و LISREL 8.8 برای تحلیل استفاده کرده است. نتایج تحلیل نشان از تأثیرات شاخصهای شناسایی بافت فرسوده روی شاخصهای توسعه پایدار پیرامون حرم مطهر با ضریب 49/0- دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Designing a conventional model of the relationship between the indices of identifying worn-out tissues and sustainable urban development in the worn-out tissues around Holy Shrine of Imam Reza, Mashhad
Worn-out tissue is one of the important issues in public policy making, which has brought many consistent pursuits and interests during the past two decades in theoretical and practical fields (Samiei & Sayafzadeh, 2016). The urban ecological environment provides people with clean water resources and a comfortable living environment, both of which are the foundation of urban economic, social, and cultural development (Li et al., 2018). Hence, the presence of environmental contaminants, waste emissions, and noise pollution in these areas are threatening the comfort of the residents. This type of tissue, which can be found widely in different areas of around holy shrine in city of Mashhad, can cause a lot of damage and financial losses at the time of accidents. In addition, residence and work efficiency in this type of urban tissue have never had the desired performance. Thus, the importance and necessity of developing the economy of Mashhad through improvement and revitalization of the worn-out urban tissues surrounding the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza are such that the acceleration of the operational process of this project is one of the main concerns of the local and national authorities as well as all the related executive organizations who are in agreement on this issue. The national and super-national consequences of running this huge project along with the necessity of offering the desired services to the pilgrims of Imam Reza and the residents of the region have made the role of all the related organs and their direct presence in performing the predicted plans inevitable (Farhadian, 2015). Addressing this issue as a deep renovation reduces energy consumption level compared to pre-renovation levels both in the short term and the long term, typically by more than 60%, because the European concept of deep renovation has been adopted by the Global Building Performance Network (Femenías et al., 2018).
Sustainable urban development is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, which has called the attention of thinkers in various fields of study, especially the urban economy in relation to the worn-out tissues and its consequences. This article aims at presenting a local model of sustainable urban development for the Samen area of Mashhad to study the relationship between the indices of identifying the worn-out texture and sustainable urban development indices using structural equation modeling. Mashhad as the second religious macro-city in the world has faced many problems in terms of its worn-out and sustainable tissues, as well as the access to services and resources, and with the huge presence of the population of pilgrims, the urban economy has faced social and management problems. Therefore, this study was carried out using a survey method and a questionnaire to collect the data from a sample of 201 people who have been stripped of the tissue around the shrine that have left the tissue and their property. The statistical software SPSS 24 and LISREL 8.8 was used for analysis. The results of sustainability evaluation of physical-technical, environmental, economic, and social indices in the worn-out tissue of Mashhad are explained as follow: In Group A, post physical-technical status of the tissue was positive as compared with the former condition (average of 13 in proportion to 18), the current environmental status was relatively positive as compared with the former status in the worn-out tissue (average of 10 to 13), the current economic status of household based on currency value of 2012 comparing with past was negative regarding the minimum and maximum amount of revenue and expense status which confirms the issue; social sustainability status of current SD was relatively negative comparing with the past (average of 84 to 77), and final status of sustainability indices before abandoning the tissue with 107 on average in proportion to after that with an average of 109 was relatively positive.
In Group B, the average of physical-technical status was 15. That is, the place of residence of samples was physically neither proper nor improper, the environmental status with the mean of 10 was average as well, and the household economic status in comparison with the modified monthly income based on currency value of 2011 indicated the minimum saving condition for the people of this group. By comparing the average income of respondents (70 people who are about to assign) as 1420 thousand Toman and 1304 thousand Toman for average expenses, the issue could be further explored. The status of social sustainability indices based on the evaluated result of average (75) was assessed as the limits of minimum and maximum responses at an average level which indicate that social indices of those who are about to assign are neither proper nor improper. In sum, urban sustainability indices for this group of people with the average of 100 were average.
In Group C, the physical-technical status with the average of 16 means the environmental status with an average of 15 was in average condition as well. The economic status of people in comparison with the modified monthly income based on the currency value of 2010 indicated minimum saving condition for the people of this group. Comparison of the claimed 1030 thousand Toman average income by respondents (170 owners) and the average expense 989 thousand Toman approved the issue. The status of social development indices based on the evaluated result of average (63) and concerning the limits of minimum and maximum answers have been assessed on a weak level which is an indicator of the status in which social indices are improper for the residents. Finally, urban sustainability indices by the average of 97 were average for the people of this group.