فقرچندبعدی براساس شاخص های آلکایر و فاستر به محرومیت در ابعاد آموزشی، بهداشت و سلامتی، استانداردهای زندگی تقسیم بندی می شود و آموزش کودکان، آموزش بزرگسالان، سلامت کودکان، سلامت مردان، سلامت زنان، کفپوش منزل، سرویس بهداشتی، امکانات اشتراکی، دسترسی به آب آشامیدنی سالم و دارائی ها از شاخص های اندازه گیری آن است. ترجیحات دلایل تصمیم گیری افراد است و در ابعاد اجتماعی و شخصی به اعتماد، ریسک، نوع دوستی، عمل متقابل مثبت و منفی تقسیم می شود. این تحقیق به ترجیحات برتر زمانی به عنوان دلایل افراد در لحظه تصمیم گیری بدون داشتن سابقه ترجیحات قبلی اشاره می کند. با استفاده از روش پرسشنامه ای در دو مرحله، در مرحله اول فقرچند بعدی شناسایی و در مرحله دوم ترجیحات افراد مایل به کمک در ابعاد مختلف فقرچند بعدی شناسائی شده و با استفاده از مدل فازی-عصبی ANFIS در نرم افزار متلب به بررسی تاثیر ترجیحات برتر زمانی بر ابعاد فقر چندبعدی می پردازیم. نتایج تاثیر بیشتر نوع دوستی زمانی، عمل متقابل زمانی، اعتماد زمانی و ریسک زمانی را به ترتیب نشان داد و این ترتیب را می توان به عنوان ترجیحات افراد در لحظه تصمیم گیری یا ترجیحات برتر زمانی معرفی کرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identify the effect of time preferences on multidimensional poverty
Measuring poverty is one of the challenges in development economics. Different methods of calculating poverty vary depending on the type of region, country, researcher goals, and available data. Definitions of poverty has changed a lot in recent years. Multidimensional poverty has replaced one-dimensional poverty. According to the breakdown of one-dimensional poverty lines and poverty is measured according to annual income. Multidimensional poverty, taking into account other aspects such as education, health, living standards and income, are fuller attention to the issue of poverty and a more comprehensive definition of poverty. In the one-dimensional poverty through poverty line be considered poor if the person under the poverty line and above it is not poor. The multidimensional poverty may be poor person in one or more dimensions, for example in the field of income above the poverty line but poor health or education are considered. Preferences are about the reasons people make decisions. Preferences are divided into social preferences and personal preferences. Preferences are divided into risk, time saving, altruism, trust, retaliation, positive and negative. These indicators have been introduced in the Global Preference Survey. In this article, by establishing the relationship between multidimensional poverty and preferences, we examine the impact of preferences on multidimensional poverty.
Top time preferences in this study are defined as preferences that have the greatest impact on people's decision-making time. For example, in different occupational groups, preferences can be different and varied at the moment of decision-making to help people in need, charities and aid organizations, which at the time of decision-making and frequently compared to other preferences to preferences. Superior goes back in time. Identifying superior preferences helps to create poverty reduction policies in line with those preferences and leads to ranking the effective preferences of individuals in multidimensional poverty.
The use of fuzzy logic in various topics such as measuring economic variables is increasing. For topics for which a definite boundary is inconceivable, fuzzy logic provides better and closer results to reality. For example, if we consider poverty in terms of income, we should use the poverty line to determine the level of poverty of individuals. For example, if the poverty line is set below the annual income of one billion rials, if a person has an annual income of 999 million rials, If he has an annual income of one billion and one hundred thousand rials, he is considered non-poor. Here, the classical set, which has a clear demarcation, can not show poverty in terms of income correctly and close to reality, while using the fuzzy set and its tools, one can belong to the non-poor group and 0.8 at a rate of 2.0 belongs to the poor. In this study, we use the adaptive fuzzy-neural model ANFIS, which is a more comprehensive model, to answer the research question regarding the identification and the maximum impact of superior temporal preferences on multidimensional poverty. According to Alkaier and Foster, Multidimensional poverty is divided into deprivation in terms of education, health, living standards, and education for children, adult education, children's health, men's health, women's health, home flooring, sanitation, shared facilities, access to education, Healthy drinking water and assets are indicators of its measurement. Preferences are the reasons for individuals' decisions and are divided into trust, risk, altruism, positive and negative reciprocity in social and personal dimensions. In this study, the best time preferences are mentioned as the reasons for people at the moment of decision making without having a history of previous preferences. Using a two-stage questionnaire method, in the first stage, multidimensional poverty was identified and in the second stage, the preferences of people willing to help in different dimensions of multidimensional poverty were identified and using ANFIS fuzzy-neural model in MATLAB software to investigate the effect of superior preferences. Let's look at the dimensions of multidimensional poverty. The results showed the greater impact of temporal altruism, temporal reciprocity, temporal trust and temporal risk, respectively, and this sequence can be introduced as the preferences of individuals at the moment of decision making or the best time preferences. In this paper, the effect of superior temporal preferences on multidimensional poverty was investigated using an adaptive adaptive fuzzy-nervous system. Multidimensional poverty is introduced in various articles with other factors of deprivation, such as education, health, living standards. Preferences address the reasons for people's decisions. Preferences refer to trust, risk, altruism, and positive and negative reciprocity. Top temporal preferences in this study for the first time refer to the reasons for a person's decision outside of past decisions and consider the reasons of individuals at the time of decision. Hence, temporal trust, temporal risk, temporal altruism, and positive and negative temporal interaction are created at the moment of a person's decision, and in the past, the effect of this preference has rarely existed. The reason for this is related to the individual's decision-making conditions at the time of the decision. For example, a person does not trust different people, but at the moment of decision making, he trusts the reasons and circumstances. Finally, by creating an ANFIS model, we examine the preferences for each of the dimensions of multidimensional poverty and obtain the results using the best creative membership functions and rules. According to the results table of temporal altruism, temporal reciprocity, temporal trust and temporal risk are the most common reasons for people to help and have the greatest impact on the dimensions of multidimensional poverty.